Anti-Markovnikov rule describes the regiochemistry where the substituent is bonded to a less substituted carbon, rather than the more substitued carbon. This process is quite unusual, as carboncations which are commonly formed during alkene, or alkyne reactions tend to favor the more substitued carbon.
Accordingly, what is markovnikov and anti Markovnikov rule?
Illustrated Glossary of Organic Chemistry - Anti-Markovnikov addition. Anti-Markovnikov addition: In an addition reaction of a generic electrophile HX to an alkene or alkyne, the hydrogen atom of HX becomes bonded to the carbon atom that had the least number of hydrogen atoms in the starting alkene or alkyne.
What is the Markovnikov rule?
The chemical basis for Markovnikov's Rule is the formation of the most stable carbocation during the addition process. The addition of the hydrogen ion to one carbon atom in the alkene creates a positive charge on the other carbon, forming a carbocation intermediate.
Why does Hydroboration produce an anti markovnikov product?
The general form of the hydroboration of alkenes mechanism is as follows: It is because of this intermediate that hydroboration forms the anti-Markovnikov product. The boron atom is highly electrophilic because of its empty p orbital (ie. it wants electrons), and forms a slight bonding interaction with the pi bond.