Consumption of animal fat and harvested fish from contaminated sites are the main source of human PCB contamination. Researchers have also found that shellfish accumulate PCBs as they filter feed plankton. Cows grazing on contaminated grasses and feed can transfer them into their fat, meat, and milk.
Dioxin is a general name for a large group of chemical compounds with similar structure. These compounds are made up of carbon, oxygen, hydrogen and chlorine atoms. The number of the chlorine atoms and their positions in the dioxin molecule are what determines the toxicity of different dioxins.
According to the most recent US EPA data, the major sources of dioxins are broadly in the following types:
- Combustion sources, e.g. municipal waste or medical waste incinerators and private backyard barrel burning.
- Metal smelting.
- Refining and process sources.
- Chemical manufacturing sources.
- Natural sources.
Dioxins are a family of 219 toxic chemicals found in the environment mostly as a byproduct of industrial processes such as smelting, bleaching of paper pulp and manufacturing of some herbicides or pesticides.
Short-term exposure of humans to high levels of dioxins may result in skin lesions, such as chloracne and patchy darkening of the skin, and altered liver function. Long-term exposure is linked to impairment of the immune system, the developing nervous system, the endocrine system and reproductive functions.
Industrial activities: Dioxin is not produced or used commercially in the United States. It is a contaminant formed in the production of some chlorinated organic compounds, including a few herbicides such as silvex.
The onset of symptoms after acute exposure to TCDD-containing substances can take days to weeks. Symptoms reported by hazardous waste cleanup crews who later developed chloracne were skin, eye, and respiratory tract irritation; headache; dizziness; and nausea.
It is possible that the exact mix of dioxin isomers found in Mr. Yushchenko's tissues may allow the poison to be traced back to a specific source. These chemicals are not natural, but are formed as byproducts of certain manufacturing processes such as those used to make pesticides and antiseptics.
Chloracne is an acne-like eruption of blackheads, cysts, and pustules associated with over-exposure to certain halogenated aromatic compounds, such as chlorinated dioxins and dibenzofurans. The lesions are most frequently found on the cheeks, behind the ears, in the armpits and groin region.
Agent Orange was a herbicide mixture used by the U.S. military during the Vietnam War. Much of it contained a dangerous chemical contaminant called dioxin. Production of Agent Orange ended in the 1970s and is no longer in use. The dioxin contaminant however continues to have harmful impact today.
A nervous system condition that causes numbness, tingling, and motor weakness. Under VA's rating regulations, it must be at least 10 percent disabling within one year of herbicide exposure. A disorder characterized by liver dysfunction and by thinning and blistering of the skin in sun-exposed areas.
International law does not specifically prohibit the use of napalm or other incendiaries against military targets, but use against civilian populations was banned by the United Nations Convention on Certain Conventional Weapons (CCW) in 1980.
Versions of Napalm B containing white phosphorus will even burn underwater (if there is trapped oxygen in folds of cloth etc.) so jumping into rivers and lakes won't help those unfortunate souls attacked with this vile weapon. Napalm is not easy to dodge or escape from.
3. VA has linked several diseases and health conditions to Agent Orange exposure.
- AL Amyloidosis.
- Chronic B-cell Leukemias.
- Chloracne (or similar acneform disease)
- Diabetes Mellitus Type 2.
- Hodgkin's Disease.
- Ischemic Heart Disease.
- Multiple Myeloma.
- Non-Hodgkin's Lymphoma.
It took two generations and a lot of heartache among the Vietnam veteran community, but the VA's “presumptive list” of diseases that are caused by exposure to Agent Orange now includes everything from non-Hodgkin lymphoma, prostate cancer, and multiple myeloma to Parkinson's disease and ischemic heart disease.
Through this process, the list of 'presumptive' conditions has grown since 1991, and currently the U.S. Department of Veterans Affairs has listed prostate cancer, respiratory cancers, multiple myeloma, type II diabetes mellitus, Hodgkin's disease, non-Hodgkin's lymphoma, soft tissue sarcoma, chloracne, porphyria
Veterans Compensation Benefits Rate Tables - Effective 12/1/17
|Veteran with Spouse Only||$1,481.48||$3,139.67|
|Veteran with Spouse and One Parent||$1,574.48||$3,272.73|
|Veteran with Spouse and Two Parents||$1,667.48||$3,405.79|
The cancers on the list include:
- Hodgkin disease.
- Multiple myeloma.
- Non-Hodgkin lymphoma.
- Prostate cancer.
- Cancer of the lung, bronchus, larynx (voice box), or trachea (windpipe)
- Soft tissue sarcoma (other than osteosarcoma, chondrosarcoma, Kaposi sarcoma, or mesothelioma)
The worst effects are seen among the people living in the areas sprayed. The U.S. Department of Veterans Affairs recognizes that Agent Orange causes multiple myeloma as wells as several types of leukemia, other cancers, diabetes, heart disease and Parkinson's disease.
Napalm & Agent Orange. Napalm was first used in flamethrowers for U.S. ground troops; they burned down sections of forest and bushes in hopes of eliminating any enemy guerrilla fighters. Agent Orange is a toxic chemical herbicide that was used from about 1965 – 1970 in the Vietnam War.