Toluene is irritating to the skin, eyes, and respiratory tract. It can cause systemic toxicity by ingestion or inhalation. The most common route of exposure is via inhalation. There is no antidote for toluene.
Subsequently, one may also ask, is toluene a solvent?
It is a colorless, water-insoluble liquid with the smell associated with paint thinners. It is a mono-substituted benzene derivative, consisting of a CH3 group attached to a phenyl group. As such, its IUPAC systematic name is methylbenzene. Toluene is predominantly used as an industrial feedstock and a solvent.
Is benzene or toluene more volatile?
In the distillation of a benzene/toluene mixture, a vapor richer in the more volatile component benzene is produced from the benzene/toluene liquid solution. Benzene is transferred from the liquid to the vapor phase, and the less volatile toluene is transferred in the opposite direction, as shown in the figure below.
Studies in workers and animals exposed to toluene generally indicate that toluene is not carcinogenic The International Agency for Research on Cancer (IARC) determined that toluene is not classifiable as to its carcinogenicity in humans.
The main effect of toluene is on the brain and nervous system, but animals exposed to moderate or high levels of toluene also show harmful effects in their liver, kidneys, and lungs and impaired immune function. Animal studies do not indicate that toluene exposure results in reproductive effects.
Toluene is a very good solvent because, unlike water, it can dissolve many organic compounds. In many commercial products, toluene is used as a solvent that is present in paint thinners, nail polish remover, glues, and correction fluid.
Toluene is, however, much less toxic than benzene, and has as a consequence, largely replaced it as an aromatic solvent in chemical preparation. The US Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) states that the carcinogenic potential of toluene cannot be evaluated due to insufficient information.
Health Hazards of Toluene. Symptoms of toluene exposure include: irritation of the eyes and nose; weakness, exhaustion, confusion, euphoria, dizziness, headache; dilated pupils, lacrimation (discharge of tears); anxiety, muscle fatigue, insomnia; numbness or tingling of the skin; dermatitis.
As demonstrated by occupational inhalation exposures, toluene is a respiratory irritant and has effects on the central nervous system (CNS). Inhalation of high levels of toluene vapors for a short period may cause drowsiness, headache, nausea, visual changes, muscle spasm, dizziness, and loss of coordination.
Toluene is one of many chemicals found in cigarettes. Toluene, which is also known as methylbenzene or phenylmethane, is a clear, water-insoluble liquid that smells of paint thinners, see also Turpentine. Toluene has many industrial uses, including: a solvent in paints, and.
Toluene is a colorless, flammable, non-corrosive liquid with a benzene-like odor. It is insoluble in water and soluble in acetone, absolute alcohol, ether, chloroform, benzene, petroleum ether, glacial acetic acid, and carbon disulfide (HSDB, 1991).
Toluene, also known as "methylbenzene", "phenylmethane" or "toluol" is a clear, colorless liquid with a sweet smell. It dissolves other substances easily and evaporates quickly into the air. Toluene is also highly flammable and may catch on fire if exposed to heat or flames.
The most common household products that contain toluene include:
- Spray paints.
- Multipurpose cleaners (liquid or aerosol)
- Contact cement.
- Floor polish.
- Paint thinners.
- Wood sealers.
Toluene is a hydrocarbon (C7H8) and because of the small difference in the electronegativties of C and H, their bond is regarded as nonpolar. Being a hydrocarbon, toluene is a molecule in which all binds are nonpolar and in turn makes it a nonpolar molecule.
Glues such as rubber cement contain volatile organic solvents (acetone, toluene, xylene, hexane etc.). These are easily inhaled and produce CNS depressant effects once they reach the brain through the bloodstream.
Patients do not pose contamination risks after clothing is removed and the skin is washed. Toxic vomitus from patients who have ingested xylene may also off-gas xylene vapor. Xylene is irritating to the skin, eyes, and respiratory tract. It can cause systemic toxicity by ingestion or inhalation.
Once in the bloodstream, benzene travels throughout your body and can be temporarily stored in the bone marrow and fat. Some of the harmful effects of benzene exposure are caused by these metabolites. Most of the metabolites of benzene leave the body in the urine within 48 hours after exposure.
Gasoline is an alkane. As implied above, alkenes are more reactive than alkanes because they can undergo addition reactions (Carey CH 6). Aromatic hydrocarbons such as toluene are also reactive.
It is primarily used as a solvent (a liquid that can dissolve other substances) in the printing, rubber, and leather industries. Along with other solvents, xylene is also widely used as a cleaning agent, a thinner for paint, and in varnishes. Xylene is found in small amounts in airplane fuel and gasoline.
8.6.3 Salicylate Toxicity. Salicylate overdose causes a high anion gap metabolic acidosis in both children and adults. Adults commonly develop a mixed acid-base disorder as a respiratory alkalosis due to direct respiratory centre stimulation occurs as well.
Each pill or capsule of regular-strength aspirin version typically contains 325 mg of the drug, while the extra-strength version is 500 mg. For headache pain, the recommended adult dose of aspirin is 325 to 650 mg every three to four hours as needed, up to six times per day.
Sodium bicarbonate is given in a significant aspirin overdose (salicylate level greater than 35 mg/dL 6 hours after ingestion) regardless of the serum pH, as it enhances elimination of aspirin in the urine. It is given until a urine pH between 7.5 and 8.0 is achieved.
For example, toluene dissolves well in hexane, but not in acetone. Ionic solids (salts) dissolve in water but not in hexane. Polar molecules like sugar dissolve in water but not in hexane. Nonpolar compounds like napthalene dissolve in hexane but not in water.